John Rubenstein, MD

Department of Psychiatry
+1 415 476-7862

We study the following processes in the development mouse forebrain:

  • Mechanisms governing regional and cell type specification within the cortex and basal ganglia.
  • Transcriptional hierarchies, including identification of gene regulatory elements (enhancers), which govern cell fate decisions in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus.
  • Molecular mechanisms controling cell migration.
  • Genetic studies of human neurogenetic disorders, such as Autism and Epilepsy.
Research Summary: 
Genetic Control of Development and Diseases of the Forebrain



Genomic analysis of transcriptional networks directing progression of cell states during MGE development.

Neural development

Sandberg M, Taher L, Hu J, Black BL, Nord AS, Rubenstein JLR

The Epigenetic Factor Landscape of Developing Neocortex Is Regulated by Transcription Factors Pax6? Tbr2? Tbr1.

Frontiers in neuroscience

Elsen GE, Bedogni F, Hodge RD, Bammler TK, MacDonald JW, Lindtner S, Rubenstein JLR, Hevner RF

Sp8 and Sp9 coordinately promote D2-type medium spiny neuron production by activating Six3 expression.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Xu Z, Liang Q, Song X, Zhang Z, Lindtner S, Li Z, Wen Y, Liu G, Guo T, Qi D, Wang M, Wang C, Li H, You Y, Wang X, Chen B, Feng H, Rubenstein JL, Yang Z

Sp9 Regulates Medial Ganglionic Eminence-Derived Cortical Interneuron Development.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Liu Z, Zhang Z, Lindtner S, Li Z, Xu Z, Wei S, Liang Q, Wen Y, Tao G, You Y, Chen B, Wang Y, Rubenstein JL, Yang Z

An analytical framework for whole-genome sequence association studies and its implications for autism spectrum disorder.

Nature genetics

Werling DM, Brand H, An JY, Stone MR, Zhu L, Glessner JT, Collins RL, Dong S, Layer RM, Markenscoff-Papadimitriou E, Farrell A, Schwartz GB, Wang HZ, Currall BB, Zhao X, Dea J, Duhn C, Erdman CA, Gilson MC, Yadav R, Handsaker RE, Kashin S, Klei L, Mandell JD, Nowakowski TJ, Liu Y, Pochareddy S, Smith L, Walker MF, Waterman MJ, He X, Kriegstein AR, Rubenstein JL, Sestan N, McCarroll SA, Neale BM, Coon H, Willsey AJ, Buxbaum JD, Daly MJ, State MW, Quinlan AR, Marth GT, Roeder K, Devlin B, Talkowski ME, Sanders SJ

Tbr1 instructs laminar patterning of retinal ganglion cell dendrites.

Nature neuroscience

Liu J, Reggiani JDS, Laboulaye MA, Pandey S, Chen B, Rubenstein JLR, Krishnaswamy A, Sanes JR

Ultraconserved Enhancers Are Required for Normal Development.


Dickel DE, Ypsilanti AR, Pla R, Zhu Y, Barozzi I, Mannion BJ, Khin YS, Fukuda-Yuzawa Y, Plajzer-Frick I, Pickle CS, Lee EA, Harrington AN, Pham QT, Garvin TH, Kato M, Osterwalder M, Akiyama JA, Afzal V, Rubenstein JLR, Pennacchio LA, Visel A

Cortical interneuron development: a tale of time and space.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Hu JS, Vogt D, Sandberg M, Rubenstein JL

Dlx1 and Dlx2 Promote Interneuron GABA Synthesis, Synaptogenesis, and Dendritogenesis.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Pla R, Stanco A, Howard MA, Rubin AN, Vogt D, Mortimer N, Cobos I, Potter GB, Lindtner S, Price JD, Nord AS, Visel A, Schreiner CE, Baraban SC, Rowitch DH, Rubenstein JLR

Mouse Cntnap2 and Human CNTNAP2 ASD Alleles Cell Autonomously Regulate PV+ Cortical Interneurons.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Vogt D, Cho KKA, Shelton SM, Paul A, Huang ZJ, Sohal VS, Rubenstein JLR

The Cytokine CXCL12 Promotes Basket Interneuron Inhibitory Synapses in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Wu PR, Cho KKA, Vogt D, Sohal VS, Rubenstein JLR

GABAergic Interneuron Differentiation in the Basal Forebrain Is Mediated through Direct Regulation of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Isoforms by Dlx Homeobox Transcription Factors.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Le TN, Zhou QP, Cobos I, Zhang S, Zagozewski J, Japoni S, Vriend J, Parkinson T, Du G, Rubenstein JL, Eisenstat DD

Transcription Factors Sp8 and Sp9 Coordinately Regulate Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Development.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Li J, Wang C, Zhang Z, Wen Y, An L, Liang Q, Xu Z, Wei S, Li W, Guo T, Liu G, Tao G, You Y, Du H, Fu Z, He M, Chen B, Campbell K, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Yang Z

Coup-TF1 and Coup-TF2 control subtype and laminar identity of MGE-derived neocortical interneurons.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Hu JS, Vogt D, Lindtner S, Sandberg M, Silberberg SN, Rubenstein JLR

Generation of pure GABAergic neurons by transcription factor programming.

Nature methods

Yang N, Chanda S, Marro S, Ng YH, Janas JA, Haag D, Ang CE, Tang Y, Flores Q, Mall M, Wapinski O, Li M, Ahlenius H, Rubenstein JL, Chang HY, Buylla AA, Südhof TC, Wernig M

Secretagogin is Expressed by Developing Neocortical GABAergic Neurons in Humans but not Mice and Increases Neurite Arbor Size and Complexity.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Raju CS, Spatazza J, Stanco A, Larimer P, Sorrells SF, Kelley KW, Nicholas CR, Paredes MF, Lui JH, Hasenstaub AR, Kriegstein AR, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Oldham MC

Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies distinct mouse medial ganglionic eminence cell types.

Scientific reports

Chen YJ, Friedman BA, Ha C, Durinck S, Liu J, Rubenstein JL, Seshagiri S, Modrusan Z

Astroglial-Mediated Remodeling of the Interhemispheric Midline Is Required for the Formation of the Corpus Callosum.

Cell reports

Gobius I, Morcom L, Suárez R, Bunt J, Bukshpun P, Reardon W, Dobyns WB, Rubenstein JL, Barkovich AJ, Sherr EH, Richards LJ

Subpallial Enhancer Transgenic Lines: a Data and Tool Resource to Study Transcriptional Regulation of GABAergic Cell Fate.


Silberberg SN, Taher L, Lindtner S, Sandberg M, Nord AS, Vogt D, Mckinsey GL, Hoch R, Pattabiraman K, Zhang D, Ferran JL, Rajkovic A, Golonzhka O, Kim C, Zeng H, Puelles L, Visel A, Rubenstein JLR

Transcriptional Networks Controlled by NKX2-1 in the Development of Forebrain GABAergic Neurons.


Sandberg M, Flandin P, Silberberg S, Su-Feher L, Price JD, Hu JS, Kim C, Visel A, Nord AS, Rubenstein JLR

A deleterious Nav1.1 mutation selectively impairs telencephalic inhibitory neurons derived from Dravet Syndrome patients.


Sun Y, Pasca SP, Portmann T, Goold C, Worringer KA, Guan W, Chan KC, Gai H, Vogt D, Chen YJ, Mao R, Chan K, Rubenstein JL, Madison DV, Hallmayer J, Froehlich-Santino WM, Bernstein JA, Dolmetsch RE

The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Sp9 Is Required for the Development of Striatopallidal Projection Neurons.

Cell reports

Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Wang C, Xu Z, Liang Q, An L, Li J, Liu Z, You Y, He M, Mao Y, Chen B, Xiong ZQ, Rubenstein JL, Yang Z

TBR1 regulates autism risk genes in the developing neocortex.

Genome research

Notwell JH, Heavner WE, Darbandi SF, Katzman S, McKenna WL, Ortiz-Londono CF, Tastad D, Eckler MJ, Rubenstein JL, McConnell SK, Chen B, Bejerano G

Radial derivatives of the mouse ventral pallium traced with Dbx1-LacZ reporters.

Journal of chemical neuroanatomy

Puelles L, Medina L, Borello U, Legaz I, Teissier A, Pierani A, Rubenstein JL

Accelerated Evolution of Enhancer Hotspots in the Mammal Ancestor.

Molecular biology and evolution

Holloway AK, Bruneau BG, Sukonnik T, Rubenstein JL, Pollard KS

Migration of Founder Epithelial Cells Drives Proper Molar Tooth Positioning and Morphogenesis.

Developmental cell

Prochazka J, Prochazkova M, Du W, Spoutil F, Tureckova J, Hoch R, Shimogori T, Sedlacek R, Rubenstein JL, Wittmann T, Klein OD

Pbx Regulates Patterning of the Cerebral Cortex in Progenitors and Postmitotic Neurons.


Golonzhka O, Nord A, Tang PLF, Lindtner S, Ypsilanti AR, Ferretti E, Visel A, Selleri L, Rubenstein JLR

EMX1 regulates NRP1-mediated wiring of the mouse anterior cingulate cortex.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Lim JW, Donahoo AL, Bunt J, Edwards TJ, Fenlon LR, Liu Y, Zhou J, Moldrich RX, Piper M, Gobius I, Bailey TL, Wray NR, Kessaris N, Poo MM, Rubenstein JL, Richards LJ

Fgf15 regulates thalamic development by controlling the expression of proneural genes.

Brain structure & function

Martinez-Ferre A, Lloret-Quesada C, Prakash N, Wurst W, Rubenstein JL, Martinez S

miR-302 Is Required for Timing of Neural Differentiation, Neural Tube Closure, and Embryonic Viability.

Cell reports

Parchem RJ, Moore N, Fish JL, Parchem JG, Braga TT, Shenoy A, Oldham MC, Rubenstein JL, Schneider RA, Blelloch R

Lhx6 and Lhx8 promote palate development through negative regulation of a cell cycle inhibitor gene, p57Kip2.

Human molecular genetics

Cesario JM, Landin Malt A, Deacon LJ, Sandberg M, Vogt D, Tang Z, Zhao Y, Brown S, Rubenstein JL, Jeong J

Cux2-positive radial glial cells generate diverse subtypes of neocortical projection neurons and macroglia.


Eckler MJ, Nguyen TD, McKenna WL, Fastow BL, Guo C, Rubenstein JLR, Chen B

Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

Vogt D, Wu PR, Sorrells SF, Arnold C, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL

Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus.

Frontiers in neuroanatomy

Ferran JL, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL

Genomic perspectives of transcriptional regulation in forebrain development.


Nord AS, Pattabiraman K, Visel A, Rubenstein JLR

An estrogen-responsive module in the ventromedial hypothalamus selectively drives sex-specific activity in females.

Cell reports

Correa SM, Newstrom DW, Warne JP, Flandin P, Cheung CC, Lin-Moore AT, Pierce AA, Xu AW, Rubenstein JL, Ingraham HA

Differential regulation of microtubule severing by APC underlies distinct patterns of projection neuron and interneuron migration.

Developmental cell

Eom TY, Stanco A, Guo J, Wilkins G, Deslauriers D, Yan J, Monckton C, Blair J, Oon E, Perez A, Salas E, Oh A, Ghukasyan V, Snider WD, Rubenstein JL, Anton ES

NPAS1 represses the generation of specific subtypes of cortical interneurons.


Stanco A, Pla R, Vogt D, Chen Y, Mandal S, Walker J, Hunt RF, Lindtner S, Erdman CA, Pieper AA, Hamilton SP, Xu D, Baraban SC, Rubenstein JL

A class of GABAergic neurons in the prefrontal cortex sends long-range projections to the nucleus accumbens and elicits acute avoidance behavior.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Lee AT, Vogt D, Rubenstein JL, Sohal VS

Inhibitory interneuron progenitor transplantation restores normal learning and memory in ApoE4 knock-in mice without or with Aß accumulation.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Tong LM, Djukic B, Arnold C, Gillespie AK, Yoon SY, Wang MM, Zhang O, Knoferle J, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A, Huang Y

A high-resolution spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression of the developing mouse brain.


Thompson CL, Ng L, Menon V, Martinez S, Lee CK, Glattfelder K, Sunkin SM, Henry A, Lau C, Dang C, Garcia-Lopez R, Martinez-Ferre A, Pombero A, Rubenstein JLR, Wakeman WB, Hohmann J, Dee N, Sodt AJ, Young R, Smith K, Nguyen TN, Kidney J, Kuan L, Jeromin A, Kaykas A, Miller J, Page D, Orta G, Bernard A, Riley Z, Smith S, Wohnoutka P, Hawrylycz MJ, Puelles L, Jones AR

Major progress towards elucidating brain wiring diagrams.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Rubenstein JL

Transcriptional regulation of enhancers active in protodomains of the developing cerebral cortex.


Pattabiraman K, Golonzhka O, Lindtner S, Nord AS, Taher L, Hoch R, Silberberg SN, Zhang D, Chen B, Zeng H, Pennacchio LA, Puelles L, Visel A, Rubenstein JL

Lhx6 directly regulates Arx and CXCR7 to determine cortical interneuron fate and laminar position.


Vogt D, Hunt RF, Mandal S, Sandberg M, Silberberg SN, Nagasawa T, Yang Z, Baraban SC, Rubenstein JL

Interneurons from embryonic development to cell-based therapy.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Southwell DG, Nicholas CR, Basbaum AI, Stryker MP, Kriegstein AR, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A

Multiple conserved regulatory domains promote Fezf2 expression in the developing cerebral cortex.

Neural development

Eckler MJ, Larkin KA, McKenna WL, Katzman S, Guo C, Roque R, Visel A, Rubenstein JL, Chen B

Olig1 function is required to repress dlx1/2 and interneuron production in Mammalian brain.


Silbereis JC, Nobuta H, Tsai HH, Heine VM, McKinsey GL, Meijer DH, Howard MA, Petryniak MA, Potter GB, Alberta JA, Baraban SC, Stiles CD, Rubenstein JL, Rowitch DH

Rapid and pervasive changes in genome-wide enhancer usage during mammalian development.


Nord AS, Blow MJ, Attanasio C, Akiyama JA, Holt A, Hosseini R, Phouanenavong S, Plajzer-Frick I, Shoukry M, Afzal V, Rubenstein JL, Rubin EM, Pennacchio LA, Visel A

Bidirectional homeostatic plasticity induced by interneuron cell death and transplantation in vivo.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Howard MA, Rubenstein JL, Baraban SC

Many human accelerated regions are developmental enhancers.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

Capra JA, Erwin GD, McKinsey G, Rubenstein JL, Pollard KS

Soluble guanylate cyclase generation of cGMP regulates migration of MGE neurons.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Mandal S, Stanco A, Buys ES, Enikolopov G, Rubenstein JL

Ldb1 is essential for development of Nkx2.1 lineage derived GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the telencephalon.

Developmental biology

Zhao Y, Flandin P, Vogt D, Blood A, Hermesz E, Westphal H, Rubenstein JL

Non-epithelial stem cells and cortical interneuron production in the human ganglionic eminences.

Nature neuroscience

Hansen DV, Lui JH, Flandin P, Yoshikawa K, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A, Kriegstein AR

Subcortical origins of human and monkey neocortical interneurons.

Nature neuroscience

Ma T, Wang C, Wang L, Zhou X, Tian M, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Li J, Liu Z, Cai Y, Liu F, You Y, Chen C, Campbell K, Song H, Ma L, Rubenstein JL, Yang Z

GABA progenitors grafted into the adult epileptic brain control seizures and abnormal behavior.

Nature neuroscience

Hunt RF, Girskis KM, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A, Baraban SC

Functional maturation of hPSC-derived forebrain interneurons requires an extended timeline and mimics human neural development.

Cell stem cell

Nicholas CR, Chen J, Tang Y, Southwell DG, Chalmers N, Vogt D, Arnold CM, Chen YJ, Stanley EG, Elefanty AG, Sasai Y, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Kriegstein AR

Mutations in FGF17, IL17RD, DUSP6, SPRY4, and FLRT3 are identified in individuals with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

American journal of human genetics

Miraoui H, Dwyer AA, Sykiotis GP, Plummer L, Chung W, Feng B, Beenken A, Clarke J, Pers TH, Dworzynski P, Keefe K, Niedziela M, Raivio T, Crowley WF, Seminara SB, Quinton R, Hughes VA, Kumanov P, Young J, Yialamas MA, Hall JE, Van Vliet G, Chanoine JP, Rubenstein J, Mohammadi M, Tsai PS, Sidis Y, Lage K, Pitteloud N

Loss of Gsx1 and Gsx2 function rescues distinct phenotypes in Dlx1/2 mutants.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Wang B, Long JE, Flandin P, Pla R, Waclaw RR, Campbell K, Rubenstein JL

Use of "MGE enhancers" for labeling and selection of embryonic stem cell-derived medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors and neurons.

PloS one

Chen YJ, Vogt D, Wang Y, Visel A, Silberberg SN, Nicholas CR, Danjo T, Pollack JL, Pennacchio LA, Anderson S, Sasai Y, Baraban SC, Kriegstein AR, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL

Inverse cancer comorbidity: a serendipitous opportunity to gain insight into CNS disorders.

Nature reviews. Neuroscience

Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Rubenstein JL

CoupTFI interacts with retinoic acid signaling during cortical development.

PloS one

Harrison-Uy SJ, Siegenthaler JA, Faedo A, Rubenstein JL, Pleasure SJ

New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons.

Nature reviews. Neuroscience

DeFelipe J, López-Cruz PL, Benavides-Piccione R, Bielza C, Larrañaga P, Anderson S, Burkhalter A, Cauli B, Fairén A, Feldmeyer D, Fishell G, Fitzpatrick D, Freund TF, González-Burgos G, Hestrin S, Hill S, Hof PR, Huang J, Jones EG, Kawaguchi Y, Kisvárday Z, Kubota Y, Lewis DA, Marín O, Markram H, McBain CJ, Meyer HS, Monyer H, Nelson SB, Rockland K, Rossier J, Rubenstein JL, Rudy B, Scanziani M, Shepherd GM, Sherwood CC, Staiger JF, Tamás G, Thomson A, Wang Y, Yuste R, Ascoli GA

A high-resolution enhancer atlas of the developing telencephalon.


Visel A, Taher L, Girgis H, May D, Golonzhka O, Hoch RV, McKinsey GL, Pattabiraman K, Silberberg SN, Blow MJ, Hansen DV, Nord AS, Akiyama JA, Holt A, Hosseini R, Phouanenavong S, Plajzer-Frick I, Shoukry M, Afzal V, Kaplan T, Kriegstein AR, Rubin EM, Ovcharenko I, Pennacchio LA, Rubenstein JL

Sp8 and COUP-TF1 reciprocally regulate patterning and Fgf signaling in cortical progenitors.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Borello U, Madhavan M, Vilinsky I, Faedo A, Pierani A, Rubenstein J, Campbell K

Dlx1&2-dependent expression of Zfhx1b (Sip1, Zeb2) regulates the fate switch between cortical and striatal interneurons.


McKinsey GL, Lindtner S, Trzcinski B, Visel A, Pennacchio LA, Huylebroeck D, Higashi Y, Rubenstein JL

Intrinsically determined cell death of developing cortical interneurons.


Southwell DG, Paredes MF, Galvao RP, Jones DL, Froemke RC, Sebe JY, Alfaro-Cervello C, Tang Y, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Rubenstein JL, Baraban SC, Alvarez-Buylla A

Cleft palate defect of Dlx1/2-/- mutant mice is caused by lack of vertical outgrowth in the posterior palate.

Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists

Jeong J, Cesario J, Zhao Y, Burns L, Westphal H, Rubenstein JL

Conditional ablation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling impairs striatal neuron development.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Li Y, Yui D, Luikart BW, McKay RM, Li Y, Rubenstein JL, Parada LF

Subcortical visual shell nuclei targeted by ipRGCs develop from a Sox14+-GABAergic progenitor and require Sox14 to regulate daily activity rhythms.


Delogu A, Sellers K, Zagoraiou L, Bocianowska-Zbrog A, Mandal S, Guimera J, Rubenstein JL, Sugden D, Jessell T, Lumsden A

Autistic-like behaviour in Scn1a+/- mice and rescue by enhanced GABA-mediated neurotransmission.


Han S, Tai C, Westenbroek RE, Yu FH, Cheah CS, Potter GB, Rubenstein JL, Scheuer T, de la Iglesia HO, Catterall WA

Specific deletion of NaV1.1 sodium channels in inhibitory interneurons causes seizures and premature death in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Cheah CS, Yu FH, Westenbroek RE, Kalume FK, Oakley JC, Potter GB, Rubenstein JL, Catterall WA

Hilar GABAergic interneuron activity controls spatial learning and memory retrieval.

PloS one

Andrews-Zwilling Y, Gillespie AK, Kravitz AV, Nelson AB, Devidze N, Lo I, Yoon SY, Bien-Ly N, Ring K, Zwilling D, Potter GB, Rubenstein JL, Kreitzer AC, Huang Y

Chronic reduction in inhibition reduces receptive field size in mouse auditory cortex.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Seybold BA, Stanco A, Cho KK, Potter GB, Kim C, Sohal VS, Rubenstein JL, Schreiner CE

Forebrain GABAergic neuron precursors integrate into adult spinal cord and reduce injury-induced neuropathic pain.


Bráz JM, Sharif-Naeini R, Vogt D, Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Basbaum AI

COUP-TFII controls amygdala patterning by regulating neuropilin expression.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Tang K, Rubenstein JL, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ

TrkA gene ablation in basal forebrain results in dysfunction of the cholinergic circuitry.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Sanchez-Ortiz E, Yui D, Song D, Li Y, Rubenstein JL, Reichardt LF, Parada LF

Helios transcription factor expression depends on Gsx2 and Dlx1&2 function in developing striatal matrix neurons.

Stem cells and development

Martín-Ibáñez R, Crespo E, Esgleas M, Urban N, Wang B, Waclaw R, Georgopoulos K, Martínez S, Campbell K, Vicario-Abejón C, Alberch J, Chan S, Kastner P, Rubenstein JL, Canals JM

A subpopulation of dorsal lateral/caudal ganglionic eminence-derived neocortical interneurons expresses the transcription factor Sp8.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Ma T, Zhang Q, Cai Y, You Y, Rubenstein JL, Yang Z

Dlx6 regulates molecular properties of the striatum and central nucleus of the amygdala.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Wang B, Lufkin T, Rubenstein JL

Influence of a subtype of inhibitory interneuron on stimulus-specific responses in visual cortex.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Mao R, Schummers J, Knoblich U, Lacey CJ, Van Wart A, Cobos I, Kim C, Huguenard JR, Rubenstein JL, Sur M

Lhx6 and Lhx8 coordinately induce neuronal expression of Shh that controls the generation of interneuron progenitors.


Flandin P, Zhao Y, Vogt D, Jeong J, Long J, Potter G, Westphal H, Rubenstein JL

No paradox, no progress: inverse cancer comorbidity in people with other complex diseases.

The Lancet. Oncology

Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Dumont N, Baudot A, Valderas JM, Climent J, Valencia A, Crespo-Facorro B, Vieta E, Gómez-Beneyto M, Martínez S, Rubenstein JL

Deletion of Dlx1 results in reduced glutamatergic input to hippocampal interneurons.

Journal of neurophysiology

Jones DL, Howard MA, Stanco A, Rubenstein JL, Baraban SC

Subregional specification of embryonic stem cell-derived ventral telencephalic tissues by timed and combinatory treatment with extrinsic signals.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Danjo T, Eiraku M, Muguruma K, Watanabe K, Kawada M, Yanagawa Y, Rubenstein JL, Sasai Y

CXCR4 and CXCR7 have distinct functions in regulating interneuron migration.


Wang Y, Li G, Stanco A, Long JE, Crawford D, Potter GB, Pleasure SJ, Behrens T, Rubenstein JL

Identification of direct downstream targets of Dlx5 during early inner ear development.

Human molecular genetics

Sajan SA, Rubenstein JL, Warchol ME, Lovett M

Tbr1 and Fezf2 regulate alternate corticofugal neuronal identities during neocortical development.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

McKenna WL, Betancourt J, Larkin KA, Abrams B, Guo C, Rubenstein JL, Chen B

A homeodomain feedback circuit underlies step-function interpretation of a Shh morphogen gradient during ventral neural patterning.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Lek M, Dias JM, Marklund U, Uhde CW, Kurdija S, Lei Q, Sussel L, Rubenstein JL, Matise MP, Arnold HH, Jessell TM, Ericson J

Dysfunction in GABA signalling mediates autism-like stereotypies and Rett syndrome phenotypes.


Chao HT, Chen H, Samaco RC, Xue M, Chahrour M, Yoo J, Neul JL, Gong S, Lu HC, Heintz N, Ekker M, Rubenstein JL, Noebels JL, Rosenmund C, Zoghbi HY

Annual Research Review: Development of the cerebral cortex: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders.

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines

Rubenstein JL

An SNP in an ultraconserved regulatory element affects Dlx5/Dlx6 regulation in the forebrain.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Poitras L, Yu M, Lesage-Pelletier C, Macdonald RB, Gagné JP, Hatch G, Kelly I, Hamilton SP, Rubenstein JL, Poirier GG, Ekker M

New neurons clear the path of astrocytic processes for their rapid migration in the adult brain.


Kaneko N, Marín O, Koike M, Hirota Y, Uchiyama Y, Wu JY, Lu Q, Tessier-Lavigne M, Alvarez-Buylla A, Okano H, Rubenstein JL, Sawamoto K

Tbr1 regulates regional and laminar identity of postmitotic neurons in developing neocortex.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Bedogni F, Hodge RD, Elsen GE, Nelson BR, Daza RA, Beyer RP, Bammler TK, Rubenstein JL, Hevner RF

Dlx5 and Dlx6 regulate the development of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Wang Y, Dye CA, Sohal V, Long JE, Estrada RC, Roztocil T, Lufkin T, Deisseroth K, Baraban SC, Rubenstein JL

Comparative mouse brain tractography of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.


Moldrich RX, Pannek K, Hoch R, Rubenstein JL, Kurniawan ND, Richards LJ

Repression of Fgf signaling by sprouty1-2 regulates cortical patterning in two distinct regions and times.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Faedo A, Borello U, Rubenstein JL

Erratum to: Role for TGF-ß superfamily signaling in telencephalic GABAergic neuron development.

Journal of neurodevelopmental disorders

Maira M, Long JE, Lee AY, Rubenstein JL, Stifani S

The progenitor zone of the ventral medial ganglionic eminence requires Nkx2-1 to generate most of the globus pallidus but few neocortical interneurons.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Flandin P, Kimura S, Rubenstein JL

Ikaros-1 couples cell cycle arrest of late striatal precursors with neurogenesis of enkephalinergic neurons.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Martín-Ibáñez R, Crespo E, Urbán N, Sergent-Tanguy S, Herranz C, Jaumot M, Valiente M, Long JE, Pineda JR, Andreu C, Rubenstein JL, Marín O, Georgopoulos K, Mengod G, Fariñas I, Bachs O, Alberch J, Canals JM

A mutation in the pericentrin gene causes abnormal interneuron migration to the olfactory bulb in mice.

Developmental biology

Endoh-Yamagami S, Karkar KM, May SR, Cobos I, Thwin MT, Long JE, Ashique AM, Zarbalis K, Rubenstein JL, Peterson AS

Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Han J, Mayo J, Xu X, Li J, Bringas P, Maas RL, Rubenstein JL, Chai Y

Role for TGF-beta superfamily signaling in telencephalic GABAergic neuron development.

Journal of neurodevelopmental disorders

Maira M, Long JE, Lee AY, Rubenstein JL, Stifani S

Reduction of seizures by transplantation of cortical GABAergic interneuron precursors into Kv1.1 mutant mice.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Baraban SC, Southwell DG, Estrada RC, Jones DL, Sebe JY, Alfaro-Cervello C, García-Verdugo JM, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A

The organization of the transcriptional network in specific neuronal classes.

Molecular systems biology

Winden KD, Oldham MC, Mirnics K, Ebert PJ, Swan CH, Levitt P, Rubenstein JL, Horvath S, Geschwind DH

Reduced conditioned fear response in mice that lack Dlx1 and show subtype-specific loss of interneurons.

Journal of neurodevelopmental disorders

Mao R, Page DT, Merzlyak I, Kim C, Tecott LH, Janak PH, Rubenstein JL, Sur M

The level of the transcription factor Pax6 is essential for controlling the balance between neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis.

PLoS genetics

Sansom SN, Griffiths DS, Faedo A, Kleinjan DJ, Ruan Y, Smith J, van Heyningen V, Rubenstein JL, Livesey FJ

Genes and signaling events that establish regional patterning of the mammalian forebrain.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology

Hoch RV, Rubenstein JL, Pleasure S

Dlx1&2 and Mash1 transcription factors control striatal patterning and differentiation through parallel and overlapping pathways.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Long JE, Swan C, Liang WS, Cobos I, Potter GB, Rubenstein JL

Generation of Cre-transgenic mice using Dlx1/Dlx2 enhancers and their characterization in GABAergic interneurons.

Molecular and cellular neurosciences

Potter GB, Petryniak MA, Shevchenko E, McKinsey GL, Ekker M, Rubenstein JL

Autism and brain development.


Walsh CA, Morrow EM, Rubenstein JL

Arx is a direct target of Dlx2 and thereby contributes to the tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Colasante G, Collombat P, Raimondi V, Bonanomi D, Ferrai C, Maira M, Yoshikawa K, Mansouri A, Valtorta F, Rubenstein JL, Broccoli V

Distinct molecular pathways for development of telencephalic interneuron subtypes revealed through analysis of Lhx6 mutants.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Zhao Y, Flandin P, Long JE, Cuesta MD, Westphal H, Rubenstein JL

Dlx genes pattern mammalian jaw primordium by regulating both lower jaw-specific and upper jaw-specific genetic programs.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Jeong J, Li X, McEvilly RJ, Rosenfeld MG, Lufkin T, Rubenstein JL

Functional disturbances in the striatum by region-specific ablation of NMDA receptors.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Ohtsuka N, Tansky MF, Kuang H, Kourrich S, Thomas MJ, Rubenstein JL, Ekker M, Leeman SE, Tsien JZ

Distal-less homeobox transcription factors regulate development and maturation of natural killer cells.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Sunwoo JB, Kim S, Yang L, Naik T, Higuchi DA, Rubenstein JL, Yokoyama WM

FGF15 promotes neurogenesis and opposes FGF8 function during neocortical development.

Neural development

Borello U, Cobos I, Long JE, McWhirter JR, Murre C, Rubenstein JL

Frontal cortex subdivision patterning is coordinately regulated by Fgf8, Fgf17, and Emx2.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Cholfin JA, Rubenstein JL

Compartment-specific transcription factors orchestrate angiogenesis gradients in the embryonic brain.

Nature neuroscience

Vasudevan A, Long JE, Crandall JE, Rubenstein JL, Bhide PG

Regional distribution of cortical interneurons and development of inhibitory tone are regulated by Cxcl12/Cxcr4 signaling.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Li G, Adesnik H, Li J, Long J, Nicoll RA, Rubenstein JL, Pleasure SJ

Histogenetic compartments of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdala based on gene expression patterns during development.

The Journal of comparative neurology

García-López M, Abellán A, Legaz I, Rubenstein JL, Puelles L, Medina L

COUP-TFI coordinates cortical patterning, neurogenesis, and laminar fate and modulates MAPK/ERK, AKT, and beta-catenin signaling.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Faedo A, Tomassy GS, Ruan Y, Teichmann H, Krauss S, Pleasure SJ, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, Studer M, Rubenstein JL

Conserved pattern of OTP-positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus and other hypothalamic sites of tetrapods.

Brain research bulletin

Bardet SM, Martinez-de-la-Torre M, Northcutt RG, Rubenstein JL, Puelles L

Abnormal social behaviors in mice lacking Fgf17.

Genes, brain, and behavior

Scearce-Levie K, Roberson ED, Gerstein H, Cholfin JA, Mandiyan VS, Shah NM, Rubenstein JL, Mucke L

Delineation of multiple subpallial progenitor domains by the combinatorial expression of transcriptional codes.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Flames N, Pla R, Gelman DM, Rubenstein JL, Puelles L, Marín O

A subpopulation of olfactory bulb GABAergic interneurons is derived from Emx1- and Dlx5/6-expressing progenitors.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Kohwi M, Petryniak MA, Long JE, Ekker M, Obata K, Yanagawa Y, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A

Distinct cis-regulatory elements from the Dlx1/Dlx2 locus mark different progenitor cell populations in the ganglionic eminences and different subtypes of adult cortical interneurons.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Ghanem N, Yu M, Long J, Hatch G, Rubenstein JL, Ekker M

Inactivation of Arx, the murine ortholog of the X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia gene, leads to severe disorganization of the ventral telencephalon with impaired neuronal migration and differentiation.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Colombo E, Collombat P, Colasante G, Bianchi M, Long J, Mansouri A, Rubenstein JL, Broccoli V

Patterning of frontal cortex subdivisions by Fgf17.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Cholfin JA, Rubenstein JL

Dlx-dependent and -independent regulation of olfactory bulb interneuron differentiation.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Long JE, Garel S, Alvarez-Dolado M, Yoshikawa K, Osumi N, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL

Genetic regulation of prefrontal cortex development and function.

Novartis Foundation symposium

Cholfin JA, Rubenstein JL

The NMR structure of the gpU tail-terminator protein from bacteriophage lambda: identification of sites contributing to Mg(II)-mediated oligomerization and biological function.

Journal of molecular biology

Edmonds L, Liu A, Kwan JJ, Avanessy A, Caracoglia M, Yang I, Maxwell KL, Rubenstein J, Davidson AR, Donaldson LW

The endocannabinoid system controls key epileptogenic circuits in the hippocampus.


Monory K, Massa F, Egertová M, Eder M, Blaudzun H, Westenbroek R, Kelsch W, Jacob W, Marsch R, Ekker M, Long J, Rubenstein JL, Goebbels S, Nave KA, During M, Klugmann M, Wölfel B, Dodt HU, Zieglgänsberger W, Wotjak CT, Mackie K, Elphick MR, Marsicano G, Lutz B

Cortical inhibition modified by embryonic neural precursors grafted into the postnatal brain.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Alvarez-Dolado M, Calcagnotto ME, Karkar KM, Southwell DG, Jones-Davis DM, Estrada RC, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A, Baraban SC

Cellular patterns of transcription factor expression in developing cortical interneurons.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Cobos I, Long JE, Thwin MT, Rubenstein JL

Can autism speak to neuroscience?

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Moldin SO, Rubenstein JL, Hyman SE

Dose-dependent functions of Fgf8 in regulating telencephalic patterning centers.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Storm EE, Garel S, Borello U, Hebert JM, Martinez S, McConnell SK, Martin GR, Rubenstein JL

Severe hearing loss in Dlxl mutant mice.

Hearing research

Polley DB, Cobos I, Merzenich MM, Rubenstein JL

New neurons follow the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the adult brain.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Sawamoto K, Wichterle H, Gonzalez-Perez O, Cholfin JA, Yamada M, Spassky N, Murcia NS, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Marin O, Rubenstein JL, Tessier-Lavigne M, Okano H, Alvarez-Buylla A

Patterning and plasticity of the cerebral cortex.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Sur M, Rubenstein JL

Analysis of four DLX homeobox genes in autistic probands.

BMC genetics

Hamilton SP, Woo JM, Carlson EJ, Ghanem N, Ekker M, Rubenstein JL

Reassessing the Dlx code: the genetic regulation of branchial arch skeletal pattern and development.

Journal of anatomy

Depew MJ, Simpson CA, Morasso M, Rubenstein JL

Telencephalic embryonic subtractive sequences: a unique collection of neurodevelopmental genes.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Bulfone A, Carotenuto P, Faedo A, Aglio V, Garzia L, Bello AM, Basile A, Andrè A, Cocchia M, Guardiola O, Ballabio A, Rubenstein JL, Zollo M

Pax6 is required for making specific subpopulations of granule and periglomerular neurons in the olfactory bulb.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Kohwi M, Osumi N, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A

Mice lacking Dlx1 show subtype-specific loss of interneurons, reduced inhibition and epilepsy.

Nature neuroscience

Cobos I, Calcagnotto ME, Vilaythong AJ, Thwin MT, Noebels JL, Baraban SC, Rubenstein JL

The vertebrate ortholog of Aristaless is regulated by Dlx genes in the developing forebrain.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Cobos I, Broccoli V, Rubenstein JL

The nuclear receptor COUP-TFI represses differentiation of Cajal-Retzius cells.

Brain research bulletin

Studer M, Filosa A, Rubenstein JL

Developmental regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by the MSX and DLX homeodomain protein families.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Givens ML, Rave-Harel N, Goonewardena VD, Kurotani R, Berdy SE, Swan CH, Rubenstein JL, Robert B, Mellon PL

Dlx1 and Dlx2 function is necessary for terminal differentiation and survival of late-born retinal ganglion cells in the developing mouse retina.

Development (Cambridge, England)

de Melo J, Du G, Fonseca M, Gillespie LA, Turk WJ, Rubenstein JL, Eisenstat DD

Identification of Tbr-1/CASK complex target genes in neurons.

Journal of neurochemistry

Wang TF, Ding CN, Wang GS, Luo SC, Lin YL, Ruan Y, Hevner R, Rubenstein JL, Hsueh YP

Identification and characterization of a novel transcript down-regulated in Dlx1/Dlx2 and up-regulated in Pax6 mutant telencephalon.

Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists

Faedo A, Quinn JC, Stoney P, Long JE, Dye C, Zollo M, Rubenstein JL, Price DJ, Bulfone A

Short- and long-range attraction of cortical GABAergic interneurons by neuregulin-1.


Flames N, Long JE, Garratt AN, Fischer TM, Gassmann M, Birchmeier C, Lai C, Rubenstein JL, Marín O

Fgf8 regulates the development of intra-neocortical projections.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Huffman KJ, Garel S, Rubenstein JL

Id4 regulates neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation in vivo.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Yun K, Mantani A, Garel S, Rubenstein J, Israel MA

Expression of regulatory genes during differentiation of thalamic nuclei in mouse and monkey.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Jones EG, Rubenstein JL

In vivo characterization of the Nkx2.1 promoter/enhancer elements in transgenic mice.


Pan Q, Li C, Xiao J, Kimura S, Rubenstein J, Puelles L, Minoo P

Origins of cortical interneuron subtypes.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Xu Q, Cobos I, De La Cruz E, Rubenstein JL, Anderson SA

Region-specific and stage-dependent regulation of Olig gene expression and oligodendrogenesis by Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Liu R, Cai J, Hu X, Tan M, Qi Y, German M, Rubenstein J, Sander M, Qiu M

Graded phenotypic response to partial and complete deficiency of a brain-specific transcript variant of the winged helix transcription factor RFX4.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Blackshear PJ, Graves JP, Stumpo DJ, Cobos I, Rubenstein JL, Zeldin DC

Model of autism: increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems.

Genes, brain, and behavior

Rubenstein JL, Merzenich MM

Forebrain gene expression domains and the evolving prosomeric model.

Trends in neurosciences

Puelles L, Rubenstein JL

The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx8 is required for the development of many cholinergic neurons in the mouse forebrain.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Zhao Y, Marín O, Hermesz E, Powell A, Flames N, Palkovits M, Rubenstein JL, Westphal H

Directional guidance of interneuron migration to the cerebral cortex relies on subcortical Slit1/2-independent repulsion and cortical attraction.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Marín O, Plump AS, Flames N, Sánchez-Camacho C, Tessier-Lavigne M, Rubenstein JL

Dlx transcription factors regulate differentiation of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral thalamus.

Molecular and cellular neurosciences

Andrews GL, Yun K, Rubenstein JL, Mastick GS

Molecular regionalization of the neocortex is disrupted in Fgf8 hypomorphic mutants.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Garel S, Huffman KJ, Rubenstein JL

Regulatory roles of conserved intergenic domains in vertebrate Dlx bigene clusters.

Genome research

Ghanem N, Jarinova O, Amores A, Long Q, Hatch G, Park BK, Rubenstein JL, Ekker M

Beyond laminar fate: toward a molecular classification of cortical projection/pyramidal neurons.

Developmental neuroscience

Hevner RF, Daza RA, Rubenstein JL, Stunnenberg H, Olavarria JF, Englund C

Cell migration in the forebrain.

Annual review of neuroscience

Marín O, Rubenstein JL

Dosage of Fgf8 determines whether cell survival is positively or negatively regulated in the developing forebrain.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Storm EE, Rubenstein JL, Martin GR

DLX5 regulates development of peripheral and central components of the olfactory system.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Long JE, Garel S, Depew MJ, Tobet S, Rubenstein JL

The early topography of thalamocortical projections is shifted in Ebf1 and Dlx1/2 mutant mice.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Garel S, Yun K, Grosschedl R, Rubenstein JL

Modulation of the notch signaling by Mash1 and Dlx1/2 regulates sequential specification and differentiation of progenitor cell types in the subcortical telencephalon.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Yun K, Fischman S, Johnson J, Hrabe de Angelis M, Weinmaster G, Rubenstein JL

Developmental functions of the Distal-less/Dlx homeobox genes.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Panganiban G, Rubenstein JL

Distinct actions of Emx1, Emx2, and Pax6 in regulating the specification of areas in the developing neocortex.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Bishop KM, Rubenstein JL, O'Leary DD

Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Depew MJ, Lufkin T, Rubenstein JL

Cortical excitatory neurons and glia, but not GABAergic neurons, are produced in the Emx1-expressing lineage.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Gorski JA, Talley T, Qiu M, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL, Jones KR

Developmental expression of the T-box transcription factor T-bet/Tbx21 during mouse embryogenesis.

Mechanisms of development

Faedo A, Ficara F, Ghiani M, Aiuti A, Rubenstein JL, Bulfone A

Distinct origins of neocortical projection neurons and interneurons in vivo.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Anderson SA, Kaznowski CE, Horn C, Rubenstein JL, McConnell SK

Patterning of the basal telencephalon and hypothalamus is essential for guidance of cortical projections.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Marín O, Baker J, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL

Slit proteins prevent midline crossing and determine the dorsoventral position of major axonal pathways in the mammalian forebrain.


Bagri A, Marín O, Plump AS, Mak J, Pleasure SJ, Rubenstein JL, Tessier-Lavigne M

Ectopic expression of the Dlx genes induces glutamic acid decarboxylase and Dlx expression.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Stühmer T, Anderson SA, Ekker M, Rubenstein JL

Expression from a Dlx gene enhancer marks adult mouse cortical GABAergic neurons.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Stühmer T, Puelles L, Ekker M, Rubenstein JL

A long, remarkable journey: tangential migration in the telencephalon.

Nature reviews. Neuroscience

Marín O, Rubenstein JL

Fate map of the avian anterior forebrain at the four-somite stage, based on the analysis of quail-chick chimeras.

Developmental biology

Cobos I, Shimamura K, Rubenstein JL, Martínez S, Puelles L

Requirement for Pbx1 in skeletal patterning and programming chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Selleri L, Depew MJ, Jacobs Y, Chanda SK, Tsang KY, Cheah KS, Rubenstein JL, O'Gorman S, Cleary ML

Sorting of striatal and cortical interneurons regulated by semaphorin-neuropilin interactions.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Marín O, Yaron A, Bagri A, Tessier-Lavigne M, Rubenstein JL

Control of oligodendrocyte differentiation by the Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factor.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Qi Y, Cai J, Wu Y, Wu R, Lee J, Fu H, Rao M, Sussel L, Rubenstein J, Qiu M

Local retinoid signaling coordinates forebrain and facial morphogenesis by maintaining FGF8 and SHH.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Schneider RA, Hu D, Rubenstein JL, Maden M, Helms JA

Pax-6 regulates expression of SFRP-2 and Wnt-7b in the developing CNS.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Kim AS, Anderson SA, Rubenstein JL, Lowenstein DH, Pleasure SJ

Distinct cortical migrations from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Anderson SA, Marín O, Horn C, Jennings K, Rubenstein JL

Tbr1 regulates differentiation of the preplate and layer 6.


Hevner RF, Shi L, Justice N, Hsueh Y, Sheng M, Smiga S, Bulfone A, Goffinet AM, Campagnoni AT, Rubenstein JL

Gsh2 and Pax6 play complementary roles in dorsoventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Yun K, Potter S, Rubenstein JL

Cell migration from the ganglionic eminences is required for the development of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons.


Pleasure SJ, Anderson S, Hevner R, Bagri A, Marin O, Lowenstein DH, Rubenstein JL

Ventral neural patterning by Nkx homeobox genes: Nkx6.1 controls somatic motor neuron and ventral interneuron fates.

Genes & development

Sander M, Paydar S, Ericson J, Briscoe J, Berber E, German M, Jessell TM, Rubenstein JL

Pallial and subpallial derivatives in the embryonic chick and mouse telencephalon, traced by the expression of the genes Dlx-2, Emx-1, Nkx-2.1, Pax-6, and Tbr-1.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Puelles L, Kuwana E, Puelles E, Bulfone A, Shimamura K, Keleher J, Smiga S, Rubenstein JL

Origin and molecular specification of striatal interneurons.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Marin O, Anderson SA, Rubenstein JL

Hippocampus development and generation of dentate gyrus granule cells is regulated by LEF1.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Galceran J, Miyashita-Lin EM, Devaney E, Rubenstein JL, Grosschedl R

A highly conserved enhancer in the Dlx5/Dlx6 intergenic region is the site of cross-regulatory interactions between Dlx genes in the embryonic forebrain.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Zerucha T, Stühmer T, Hatch G, Park BK, Long Q, Yu G, Gambarotta A, Schultz JR, Rubenstein JL, Ekker M

Independent regulation of Dlx2 expression in the epithelium and mesenchyme of the first branchial arch.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Thomas BL, Liu JK, Rubenstein JL, Sharpe PT

Intrinsic and extrinsic control of cortical development.

Novartis Foundation symposium

Rubenstein JL

The contribution of the ganglionic eminence to the neuronal cell types of the cerebral cortex.

Novartis Foundation symposium

Parnavelas JG, Anderson SA, Lavdas AA, Grigoriou M, Pachnis V, Rubenstein JL

DLX-1, DLX-2, and DLX-5 expression define distinct stages of basal forebrain differentiation.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Eisenstat DD, Liu JK, Mione M, Zhong W, Yu G, Anderson SA, Ghattas I, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL

Dlx5 regulates regional development of the branchial arches and sensory capsules.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Depew MJ, Liu JK, Long JE, Presley R, Meneses JJ, Pedersen RA, Rubenstein JL

Genetic control of cortical development.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Rubenstein JL, Rakic P

Genetic control of cortical regionalization and connectivity.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Rubenstein JL, Anderson S, Shi L, Miyashita-Lin E, Bulfone A, Hevner R

Early neocortical regionalization in the absence of thalamic innervation.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Miyashita-Lin EM, Hevner R, Wassarman KM, Martinez S, Rubenstein JL

Expression pattern of the Tbr2 (Eomesodermin) gene during mouse and chick brain development.

Mechanisms of development

Bulfone A, Martinez S, Marigo V, Campanella M, Basile A, Quaderi N, Gattuso C, Rubenstein JL, Ballabio A

Homeobox gene Nkx2.2 and specification of neuronal identity by graded Sonic hedgehog signalling.


Briscoe J, Sussel L, Serup P, Hartigan-O'Connor D, Jessell TM, Rubenstein JL, Ericson J

Comparison of the mammalian and avian telencephalon from the perspective of gene expression data.

European journal of morphology

Puelles L, Kuwana E, Puelles E, Rubenstein JL

Cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel expression in embryonic chick brain.

Brain research. Molecular brain research

Timpe LC, Jin KL, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL

Ectopic bone morphogenetic proteins 5 and 4 in the chicken forebrain lead to cyclopia and holoprosencephaly.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Golden JA, Bracilovic A, McFadden KA, Beesley JS, Rubenstein JL, Grinspan JB

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Martinez S, Crossley PH, Cobos I, Rubenstein JL, Martin GR

Induction of the epibranchial placodes.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Begbie J, Brunet JF, Rubenstein JL, Graham A

Domains of regulatory gene expression and the developing optic chiasm: correspondence with retinal axon paths and candidate signaling cells.

The Journal of comparative neurology

Marcus RC, Shimamura K, Sretavan D, Lai E, Rubenstein JL, Mason CA

An olfactory sensory map develops in the absence of normal projection neurons or GABAergic interneurons.


Bulfone A, Wang F, Hevner R, Anderson S, Cutforth T, Chen S, Meneses J, Pedersen R, Axel R, Rubenstein JL

Association of MSX1 and TGFB3 with nonsyndromic clefting in humans.

American journal of human genetics

Lidral AC, Romitti PA, Basart AM, Doetschman T, Leysens NJ, Daack-Hirsch S, Semina EV, Johnson LR, Machida J, Burds A, Parnell TJ, Rubenstein JL, Murray JC

Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Sussel L, Kalamaras J, Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Meneses JJ, Pedersen RA, Rubenstein JL, German MS

Development of the cerebral cortex: V. Transcription factors and brain development.

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Rubenstein JL

Patterning of the embryonic forebrain.

Current opinion in neurobiology

Rubenstein JL, Beachy PA

Molecular control of odontogenic patterning: positional dependent initiation and morphogenesis.

European journal of oral sciences

Thomas BL, Tucker AS, Ferguson C, Qiu M, Rubenstein JL, Sharpe PT

Regionalization of the prosencephalic neural plate.

Annual review of neuroscience

Rubenstein JL, Shimamura K, Martinez S, Puelles L

Dlx genes encode DNA-binding proteins that are expressed in an overlapping and sequential pattern during basal ganglia differentiation.

Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists

Liu JK, Ghattas I, Liu S, Chen S, Rubenstein JL

Role of Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 genes in patterning of the murine dentition.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Thomas BL, Tucker AS, Qui M, Ferguson CA, Hardcastle Z, Rubenstein JL, Sharpe PT

Interneuron migration from basal forebrain to neocortex: dependence on Dlx genes.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Anderson SA, Eisenstat DD, Shi L, Rubenstein JL

Specification of the anterior hindbrain and establishment of a normal mid/hindbrain organizer is dependent on Gbx2 gene function.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Wassarman KM, Lewandoski M, Campbell K, Joyner AL, Rubenstein JL, Martinez S, Martin GR

Inductive interactions direct early regionalization of the mouse forebrain.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Shimamura K, Rubenstein JL

ENC-1: a novel mammalian kelch-related gene specifically expressed in the nervous system encodes an actin-binding protein.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Hernandez MC, Andres-Barquin PJ, Martinez S, Bulfone A, Rubenstein JL, Israel MA

Dlx-2 homeobox gene controls neuronal differentiation in primary cultures of developing basal ganglia.

Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN

Ding M, Robel L, James AJ, Eisenstat DD, Leckman JF, Rubenstein JL, Vaccarino FM

Workshop on schizophrenia.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Barondes SH, Alberts BM, Andreasen NC, Bargmann C, Benes F, Goldman-Rakic P, Gottesman I, Heinemann SF, Jones EG, Kirschner M, Lewis D, Raff M, Roses A, Rubenstein J, Snyder S, Watson SJ, Weinberger DR, Yolken RH

Mutation of the Emx-1 homeobox gene disrupts the corpus callosum.

Developmental biology

Qiu M, Anderson S, Chen S, Meneses JJ, Hevner R, Kuwana E, Pedersen RA, Rubenstein JL

Sequence, organization, and transcription of the Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 locus.


McGuinness T, Porteus MH, Smiga S, Bulfone A, Kingsley C, Qiu M, Liu JK, Long JE, Xu D, Rubenstein JL

The cDNA sequence of murine Nkx-2.2.


Hartigan DJ, Rubenstein JL

Expression patterns of two murine homologs of Drosophila single-minded suggest possible roles in embryonic patterning and in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome.

Molecular and cellular neurosciences

Fan CM, Kuwana E, Bulfone A, Fletcher CF, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Crews S, Martinez S, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL, Tessier-Lavigne M

Longitudinal organization of the anterior neural plate and neural tube.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Shimamura K, Hartigan DJ, Martinez S, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL

Steroidogenic enzyme P450c17 is expressed in the embryonic central nervous system.


Compagnone NA, Bulfone A, Rubenstein JL, Mellon SH

T-brain-1: a homolog of Brachyury whose expression defines molecularly distinct domains within the cerebral cortex.


Bulfone A, Smiga SM, Shimamura K, Peterson A, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL

Id gene expression during development and molecular cloning of the human Id-1 gene.

Brain research. Molecular brain research

Zhu W, Dahmen J, Bulfone A, Rigolet M, Hernandez MC, Kuo WL, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL, Israel MA

The spatial localization of Dlx-2 during tooth development.

Connective tissue research

Thomas BL, Porteus MH, Rubenstein JL, Sharpe PT

DLX-2, MASH-1, and MAP-2 expression and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation define molecularly distinct cell populations in the embryonic mouse forebrain.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Porteus MH, Bulfone A, Liu JK, Puelles L, Lo LC, Rubenstein JL

The embryonic vertebrate forebrain: the prosomeric model.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Rubenstein JL, Martinez S, Shimamura K, Puelles L

Homeobox gene expression during development of the vertebrate brain.

Current topics in developmental biology

Rubenstein JL, Puelles L

Spatially restricted expression of Dlx-1, Dlx-2 (Tes-1), Gbx-2, and Wnt-3 in the embryonic day 12.5 mouse forebrain defines potential transverse and longitudinal segmental boundaries.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Bulfone A, Puelles L, Porteus MH, Frohman MA, Martin GR, Rubenstein JL

The mouse Dlx-2 (Tes-1) gene is expressed in spatially restricted domains of the forebrain, face and limbs in midgestation mouse embryos.

Mechanisms of development

Bulfone A, Kim HJ, Puelles L, Porteus MH, Grippo JF, Rubenstein JL

A partial cDNA sequence of the Dlx-2 cDNA.


Porteus MH, Bulfone A, Ciaranello RD, Rubenstein JL

Isolation and characterization of a library of cDNA clones that are preferentially expressed in the embryonic telencephalon.

Brain research. Molecular brain research

Porteus MH, Brice AE, Bulfone A, Usdin TB, Ciaranello RD, Rubenstein JL

Introduction of genes into embryonal carcinoma cells and preimplantation embryos by retroviral vectors.

Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

Nicolas JF, Rubenstein JL, Bonnerot C, Jacob F

[Nonsense RNA: a tool for specifically inhibiting the expression of a gene in vivo].

Comptes rendus de l'Academie des sciences. Serie III, Sciences de la vie

Rubenstein JL, Nicolas JF, Jacob F

Construction of a synthetic messenger RNA encoding a membrane protein.

The Journal of cell biology

Rubenstein JL, Chappell TG

Purification of coated vesicles by agarose gel electrophoresis.

The Journal of cell biology

Rubenstein JL, Fine RE, Luskey BD, Rothman JE

Lateral diffusion of M-13 coat protein in mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol.


Smith LM, Rubenstein JL, Parce JW, McConnell HM

Dynamic properties of binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholines and cholesterol.


Rubenstein JL, Owicki JC, McConnell HM

Lateral diffusion in binary mixtures of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Rubenstein JL, Smith BA, McConnell HM

Structure of hepatitis B Dane particle DNA before and after the Dane particle DNA polymerase reaction.

Journal of virology

Hruska JF, Clayton DA, Rubenstein JL, Robinson WS